PHILOSOPHY PATHWAYS ISSN 2043-0728
Issue No. 224
17th August 2018
Edited by Nicholas Anakwue
I. 'Evaluating Classical Identity and Its Alternatives' by Tamoghna Sarkar
II. 'Wittgenstein and Husserl: Context Meaning Theory' by Sanjit Chakraborty
III. 'An Appraisal of Hume's Hermeneutic of the A Priori' by Nicholas Anakwue
IV. 'Ich. Fichte: Absolutely' by Martin Jenkins
From the List Manager
V. Actual Studies: new Russian journal
VI. Merab Mamardashvili: Georgian philosopher
VII. Askaphilosopher.org -- new URL for 'Ask a Philosopher'
This month's issue of Philosophy Pathways discusses metaphysical themes that run through the intersection between identity, knowledge and phenomenology. As Kant's Copernican revolution had affirmed, the trajectory of knowledge was to progress from the categories of the mind to the world out there. The affirmation of identity was a primary substantive factor in the development and maturity of the self and knowledge [...]
(c) Nicholas Anakwue 2018
About the editor:
I. 'EVALUATING CLASSICAL IDENTITY AND ITS ALTERNATIVES' BY TAMOGHNA SARKAR
Western Classical theory of identity encompasses either the concept of identity as introduced in the first-order logic or language or as it is employed in the higher-order languages. In first-order extensional language or logic, identity ('=') is commonly introduced as a binary predicate satisfying the laws of reflexivity and unrestricted Indiscernibility of Identicals [...]
(c) Tamoghna Sarkar
II. 'WITTGENSTEIN AND HUSSERL: CONTEXT MEANING THEORY' BY SANJIT CHAKRABORTY
The present article concentrates on understanding the limits of language from the realm of meaning theory as portrayed by Wittgenstein... I also attempt to show the Husserlian idea of meaning as an essence that is related to the meaning rather than linguistics. Both the giants are talking about description of language from different levels. My effort would be to illustrate how these two giant thinkers proclaim their meaning theories in such a way that leads to a well-known internalism versus externalism debate in the philosophy of mind and language [...]
(c) Sanjit Chakraborty 2018
III. 'AN APPRAISAL OF HUME'S HERMENEUTIC OF THE A PRIORI' BY NICHOLAS ANAKWUE
The precipitous growth of the philosophical enterprise has constantly witnessed the growing dialogue of mediation in relation to its nature, between the two contrasting parts of science on the one hand, and theology on the other. The aspect of science, with relation to the philosophic paradigm, admits only of the realm of empirical investigation, as opposed to the ambiguity faced in the array of questions outside the precinct of sensible knowledge in the realm of the trans-empirical [...]
(c) Nicholas Anakwue 2018
IV. 'ICH. FICHTE: ABSOLUTELY' BY MARTIN JENKINS
Following the Copernican Revolution made by Immanuel Kant with his Critical Idealism, some felt the revolution in epistemology had gone awry and was not sufficiently critical. Johann Gottlieb Fichte was such a critic and furthered the revolution in his The Science of Knowledge (1797) [...]
(c) Martin Jenkins 2018
V. ACTUAL STUDIES: NEW RUSSIAN JOURNAL
We invite experts in the field of philosophy (doctors and candidates of sciences) to work as reviewers and members of the editorial board of the scientific journal: 'Actual Studies: a study of the problems of modern society.'
The scientific journal: 'Actual Studies' publishes research on contemporary philosophical problems related to bioethics, biocybernetics, futurological studies, the philosophy of consciousness, and philosophy of language.
The magazine is published in Russia.
Candidate of Philosophy and Associate Professor
Department of Philosophy
Kuban State Agrarian University
Whats App +79883632511
VI. MERAB MAMARDASHVILI: GEORGIAN PHILOSOPHER
Merab Mamardashvili (1930-1990) was born in Georgia into a
military family. His mother belonged to a family of
teachers of Georgian crown princes. In 1954 he entered the
Department of Philosophy at Moscow University. He defended
his Ph.D thesis in 1970 in Tbilisi (Georgia). He worked in
the Institute of Philosophy of the USSR and lectured at
Moscow University on Descartes, Kant, and philosophy of
science. In 1980 he went to Georgia, where he worked at the
Institute of Philosophy and lectured on Proust and
phenomenology in University of Tbilisi. For his talent at
lecturing he was called the 'Russian Socrates'. He wrote
just one book Tractatus on Development of Knowledge, all
his other works are collections of his interviews, speeches
From 'Gallery of Russian Thinkers'
I recently received an email from Irakli Nadareishvili objecting to our selection of Mamardashvili on the grounds that he was not Russian but Georgian:
Merab Mamardashvili was a Georgian philosopher, who lived
and worked in Soviet Union (which occupied Georgia in that
period) and out of necessity was writing in Russian, but
Mamardashvili was by no means a 'Russian' and has
published numerous harsh criticisms of Russian actions
To list Mamardashvili as a 'Russian' philosopher is a
direct offense to the memory of Mamardashvili. I am not
surprised that the editor of the page is Russian and I
assume he would love to claim this great philosopher as
Russian but it is factually wrong.
Thank you for your email. I understand your concerns,
although the concept might be hard to grasp from someone in
the West who has not suffered under Russian imperialism.
The 'offense' in calling Mamardashvili a Russian
philosopher is the same, no more or less than when the
great philosophers Locke, Berkeley and Hume are described
as the 'English empiricists', when in fact Berkeley was
Irish and Hume was Scottish.
Ireland and Scotland (and Wales) were conquered by the
English. The result was the 'United Kingdom'. The 'Soviet
Union' (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) is a similar
Today, there is still rancour among Northern Irish and
Scots who want independence from the UK. They want the UK
to be broken up. I would not be surprised to receive an
email from a Scot complaining that Hume is wrongly
described as English, although it is unlike that they would
go on to say that it was 'an offense to his memory' to call
What's the difference? The USSR was an evil regime, which
treated its people harshly, especially those in the
republics where it tried to erase their language and
culture. Hume was proud to be British. It was in England
that he made his reputation as a philosopher and man of
The USSR of course was merely the inheritor of the Russian Empire ruled by the Tzars. Although many welcomed the 'breakup' of the Soviet Union following the fall of the Berlin Wall, there are other Russians who would wish to see the Russian Empire restored to its former glory. As a proud citizen of the UK, this is a desire that I sympathize with. However, I also sympathize with those who desire independence and the freedom to determine their own destiny. Just ask any supporter of Brexit why they feel so strongly about the encroaching power of the EU.
(c) Geoffrey Klempner
VII. ASKAPHILOSOPHER.ORG -- NEW URL FOR 'ASK A PHILOSOPHER'
Courtesy of Wordpress, we have a new internet address for the latest questions and answers posted on 'Ask a Philosopher'.
The new URL is askaphilosopher.org
No need to change your bookmarks as the old address askaphilosopher.wordpress.com still works, and forwards to the new address.
The new address came about as the result of a happy accident. I recently decided to upgrade the Wordpress site in order to remove annoying ads. However, an unexpected benefit was a 'free domain name'. Askaphilosopher.org was available so the choice was a no-brainer.
Please note that the original 'Ask a Philosopher' page on the Pathways web site is still fully functional, and has links to every question and answer posted on 'Ask a Philosopher' since the service was launched in 1999. The original page is at klempner.freeshell.org/askaphilosopher/
Another Wordpress site to benefit from the address upgrade is 'Pathways to Philosophy: Essays' which has a selection of the most interesting work produced by students taking the six Pathways Programs.
The new URL is philosophyessays.org
All essays written for 'Pathways to Philosophy' are posted on the 'Pathways Essay Cabinet' which is accessible to all Pathways students. However, the Essays page on Wordpress gives non-members the chance to see what we can do.
If you are a Pathways student and your work is not yet represented on this page -- regardless of how long ago you did your Pathways program -- please contact me and we will make a selection.
(c) Geoffrey Klempner